Our paper “Data Mining and Machine Learning Techniques supporting Time-based Separation Concept Deployment”, co-written with Eurocontrol and WaPT, has been accepted by the 37th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC) in London, U.K.
The paper presents two methods to allow air traffic controllers to deliver separation minima accurately and safely, on the basis of time intervals instead of distances.
Importantly, in strong headwind conditions, the aircraft’s groundspeed during approach decreases, meaning that keeping the distance-based separation method results in lower landing rates. At a time of intensified air traffic, this situation leads to considerable delays at airports with significant costs to operators and travellers.
With the new methods presented in the paper, capacity can increase by up to 14% in strong wind conditions, and by up to 8% in moderate wind conditions.
The paper will be presented in September at DASC 2018, but you can already read the abstract below. If you wish to go deeper into the subject, do not hesitate to contact our research department at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Time-Based Separation (TBS) concept consists in the definition of separation minima for aircraft on the final approach to a runway based on time intervals instead of distances, as applied in Distance-Based Separation (DBS) operations.
TBS allows for dynamic distance separation reductions in strong headwind conditions so as to preserve time spacing across all wind conditions. However, TBS application entails the use of a support tool providing separation distance indicators depending on the applicable time separation minimum, the aircraft speed profile which also depends on the headwind conditions.
This paper details two methodologies allowing a system to compute those TBS indicators so as to allow Air Traffic Controllers to accurately and safely deliver the TBS minima using a separation delivery support tool. The first approach is based on “analytical” data mining and modelling whereas the second one is based on a Machine Learning (M/L) procedure.
In the framework of the deployment of the TBS concept in Vienna airport (LOWW), those approaches are developed and tested using a database covering one year of traffic and corresponding local meteorological data.
The operation of TBS with indicators computed using either approaches leads to substantial diminution of time separations compared to a DBS strategy. However, given the large uncertainties related both to leader and follower aircraft speed profiles, the buffers could be designed only for the most frequent pairs. With the M/L approach (resp. the “analytical” approach), the capacity benefits related to the application of TBS with a separation support tool are of the order of 8% (resp. 2%) in moderate wind conditions, and up to 14% (resp. 10%) in strong wind conditions.
Iterative-convergent algorithms represent an im-portant family of applications in big data analytics. These aretypically run on distributed processing frameworks deployed on a cluster of machines. On the other hand, we are witnessing the move towards data center operating systems (OS), where resources are unified by a resource manager and processing frameworks coexist with each other. In this context, different processing framework job tasks can be scheduled on the same machine and slow down a worker (straggler problem). Existing work has shown that an iteration model with relaxed consistency such as the Stale Synchronous Parallel (SSP) model, while still guaranteeing convergence, is able to cope with stragglers. In this paper we propose a model for the integration of the SSP model on a pipelined distributed processing framework. We then apply SSP on a distributed version of the Frank-Wolfe algorithm. We theoretically show its sparsity bounds and convergence under SSP. Finally, we experimentally show that the Frank-Wolfe algorithm applied on LASSO regression under SSP is able to converge faster than its BSP counterpart, especially under load conditions similar to those encountered in a data center OS.
Nam-Luc Tran, Thomas Peel, Sabri Skhiri, Distributed Frank-Wolfe under Pipelined Stale Synchronous Parallelism, proceedings of the 2015 IEEE Conference on Big Data, November 2015, Santa Clara, CA, USA.